By Y. Marcus. Lutheran Bible Institute.
Patients • Dry mouth • Dyskinesia should be advised of the risks of liver in- • Back pain • Diarrhea jury and provide written informed con- • Diaphoresis • Brown-orange urine discoloration (en- sent before starting tolcapone order 250mg tetracycline free shipping antibiotic treatment for strep throat. In addition buy cheap tetracycline 250mg online bacterial meningitis, some anticonvulsants are used in the emergency treatment of status epilepticus (a continuous seizure state). Treatment of epilepsy should begin with a single drug whose dosage is increased until seizures are controlled or adverse reac- tions become problematic. Generally, a second alternative should be tried as monotherapy before combination therapy is consid- ered. The choice of drug treatment depends on seizure type, drug characteristics, and patient preferences. The most Hydantoins commonly prescribed anticonvulsant drugs The two most commonly prescribed anticonvulsants—phenytoin are phenytoin and and phenytoin sodium—belong to the hydantoin class. Extensively protein-bound, ethotoin is excreted in urine, primarily as metabolites. Pharmacodynamics In most cases, the hydantoin anticonvulsants stabilize nerve cells to keep them from getting overexcited. Phenytoin appears to work in the motor cortex of the brain, where it stops the spread of seizure activity. The pharmacodynamics of fosphenytoin and etho- toin are thought to mimic those of phenytoin. Pharmacotherapeutics Adverse Because of its effectiveness and relatively low toxicity, phenytoin reactions to is the most commonly prescribed anticonvulsant. It’s one of the hydantoins drugs of choice to treat: • complex partial seizures (also called psychomotor or temporal Adverse reactions to lobe seizures) hydantoins include: • tonic-clonic seizures. Here are some ventricular conduction drug interactions of major to moderate clinical significance: • ventricular fibrillation • Phenytoin’s effect is decreased when it’s taken with phenobarbi- (in toxic states) tal, diazoxide, theophylline, carbamazepine, rifampin, antacids, or • bradycardia, hypoten- sucralfate. Phenobarbital is sometimes used for long-term treatment of epilepsy and is prescribed selectively to treat status epilepticus if hydantoins are ineffective. Other barbiturates Mephobarbital, also a long-acting barbiturate, is sometimes used as an anticonvulsant. Primidone, which is closely related chemi- cally to the barbiturates, is also used to treat chronic epilepsy. Pharmacokinetics Each barbiturate has a slightly different set of pharmacokinetic properties. The drug is 20% to 45% bound to serum proteins and to a similar extent to oth- er tissues, including the brain. About 75% of a phenobarbital dose is metabolized by the liver, and 25% is excreted unchanged in urine. Mephobarbital undergoes extensive me- tabolism by the liver; only 1% to 2% is excreted unchanged in urine. Pharmacodynamics Barbiturates exhibit anticonvulsant action at doses below those that produce hypnotic effects. For this reason, they usually don’t produce addiction when used to treat epilepsy. Barbiturates ele- vate the seizure threshold by decreasing postsynaptic excitation. The ma- Adverse jor disadvantage of using phenobarbital for status epilepticus is that it has a delayed onset of action when an immediate response reactions to is needed. Adverse reactions to Consider this phenobarbital and me- Mephobarbital has no advantage over phenobarbital and is used phobarbital include: when the patient can’t tolerate the adverse effects of phenobarbi- • drowsiness, lethargy, tal. Because of monitoring, costs, and dosing frequency, phenobar- and dizziness bital is usually tried before primidone. Primidone may be effective • nystagmus, confusion, in patients who fail to respond to phenobarbital. As a group Reduced effects All three barbiturates Barbiturate use can decrease the effects can produce a hyper- of many drugs, including beta- sensitivity rash, other adrenergic blockers, corticos- rashes, lupus erythe- teroids, digoxin, estrogens, doxy- matosus–like syndrome cycline, oral anticoagulants, hor- (an inflammatory disor- monal contraceptives, quinidine, der), and enlarged lymph phenothiazine, metronidazole, tri- nodes. It effectively treats: • partial and generalized tonic-clonic seizures • mixed seizure types • complex partial seizures (drug of choice).
When evaluating the results of photostability studies to determine whether change caused by exposure to light is a buy discount tetracycline 250mg line virus hitting us. For other or for general protection of the sample should also be light sources and actinometric systems tetracycline 500mg low cost antibiotic antimycotic, the same approach considered and eliminated wherever not relevant to the may be used, but each actinometric system should be test being carried out. Where practicable, when testing samples of the drug Prepare a sufﬁcient quantity of a 2% weight/volume product outside of the primary pack, these should be pre- aqueous solution of quinine monohydrochloride dihydrate sented in a way similar to the conditions mentioned for the (if necessary, dissolve by heating). The samples should be positioned to provide maximum area of exposure to the light source. Put 10 mL of the solution into a 20-mL colorless ampoule If direct exposure is not practical (e. Separately, put 10 mL of the solution into a 20-mL suitable protective inert transparent container (e. The labeling guidance provided below per- tains only to products as packaged for distribution. Option 2 Instructions and stability statements that may be needed Fill a 1-cm quartz cell and use this as the sample. The length of exposure should guidance are acceptable, no labeling storage statement be sufﬁcient to ensure a change in absorbance of at regarding light is needed. Change after Exposure in the Immediate Alternative packaging conﬁgurations may be used if appropriately validated, and alternative validated chemical Container and Closure actinometers may be used. If changes observed when the product is directly exposed are unacceptable but are acceptable when the product is 7. Acceptable/Unacceptable Photostability tested in the immediate container and closure under the conditions described in the Q1B guidance, the inclusion Change of a labeling storage statement regarding light would The extent of the drug product photostability testing depend on the likelihood of the product being removed depends on the change that has occurred at the end of from the immediate package during the distribution pro- each test tier. For those products that are unlikely to be removed acceptance criteria for the product would not be consid- from the immediate container, such as creams or oint- ered acceptable change. This is a stress test designed to ments in tubes dispensed directly to the patient and oph- determine the intrinsic photostability characteristics of thalmic products, the use of a labeling storage statement new drug substances and products, and no correlation regarding light is optional. For products that may be has been developed to equate a within-speciﬁcation removed from the immediate pack, such as pharmacy result to an expiration dating period. Change after Exposure in the Market Pack change as acceptable because the processes may be inde- pendent and additive. For example, a 5% loss in potency If changes that are observed are acceptable only when the caused by photodegradation may be considered accept- product in the market pack is exposed under the conditions able if that is the only type of degradation observed. If described in the Q1B guidance, labeling storage state- the product is also expected to degrade 5% over the shelf ments regarding light should be included. Quantitative analysis of the color change is not recommended, as these changes are not likely to occur When degradation products are detected upon storage, the under actual storage conditions. In the absence of change following information about them should be submitted: 54 Handbook of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Formulations: Semisolid Products • Procedure for isolation and puriﬁcation M. A satisfactory inspection of the laboratory or lab- • Biological effect and pharmacological actions, oratories that will perform the testing will be necessary. Time frames should be If racemization of the drug substance in the dosage form established to encompass the date of production, date of is possible, the information described above also should quality control release of the dosage form, bulk packaging, be provided. Maximum time frames for each operation should be estab- A study of the effects of temperature variation, particu- lished and substantiated by the applicant. However, biotechnologi- • temperature cycling study for drug products cal and biological products have distinguishing characteris- that may be exposed to temperature variations tics to which consideration should be given in any well- above freezing may consist of three cycles of 2 deﬁned testing program designed to conﬁrm their stability days at refrigerated temperature (2°–8°C) fol- during the intended storage period. For such products in lowed by 2 days under accelerated storage con- which the active components are typically proteins or ditions (40°C). The products are particularly sensi- tures may consist of three cycles of 2 days at tive to environmental factors such as temperature changes, freezer temperature (−10° to −20°C) followed oxidation, light, ionic content, and shear. To ensure mainte- by 2 days under accelerated storage conditions nance of biological activity and to avoid degradation, strin- (40°C). With these concerns in mind, the applicant should • Alternatives to these conditions may be accept- develop the proper supporting stability data for a bio- able with appropriate justiﬁcation. Primary data to support a requested is submitted to the agency, with a commitment to place storage period for either drug substance or drug product the ﬁrst three manufacturing-scale batches into the long- should be based on long-term, real-time, real-condition term stability program after approval. Thus, the development of a proper long- The quality of the batches of drug substance placed term stability program becomes critical to the successful into the stability program should be representative of the development of a commercial product.
Universal vitamin A distributon involves the periodic administraton of supplemental doses to all preschool-age children with priority given to age groups order 500 mg tetracycline visa antibiotics harmful, 6 months to 3 years order 500mg tetracycline amex vantin antibiotic for sinus infection, or regions at greatest risk. All mothers in high-risk regions should also receive a high dose of vitamin A within 8 weeks of delivery. Since vitamin A is associated with a teratogenic efect it should be given in smaller doses (no more than 10,000 units/day) to women of child-bearing age. Doses of vitamin A should be admin- istered orally immediately upon diagnosis of xerophthalmia and thereafer patents with acute corneal lesions should be referred to a hospital on an emergency basis. In women of child-bearing age there is a need to balance the possible teratogenic efects of vitamin A should they be pregnant with the serious consequences of xerophthalmia. Where there are severe signs of xerophthalmia high dose treatment as for patents over 1 year should be given. When less severe symp- toms are present (for example night blindness) a much lower dose is recommended. Vitamin A therapy should also be given during epidemics of measles to reduce complicatons. Vitamin B is composed of widely difering substances which are, for convenience, classed as ‘vitamin B complex’. Chronic dry ‘beri-beri’ is characterized by peripheral neurop- athy, muscle wastng and weakness, and paralysis; wet ‘beri- beri’ is characterized by cardiac failure and oedema. Thiamine is given by intravenous injecton in doses of up to 300 mg daily (parenteral preparatons may contain several B group vitamins) as inital treatment in severe defciency states. Ribofavin (vitamin B2) defciency may result from reduced dietary intake or reduced absorpton due to liver disease, alcoholism, chronic infecton or probenecid therapy. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) defciency is rare as the vitamin is widely distributed in foods, but defciency may occur during isoniazid therapy and is characterized by peripheral neurits. High doses are given in some metabolic disorders, such as hyperoxaluria and it is also used in sideroblastc anaemia. Nicotnic acid inhibits the synthesis of cholesterol and triglyceride and is used in some hyperlipidaemias. Nicotnic acid and nicotnamide are used to prevent and treat nicotnic acid defciency (pellagra). Hydroxocobalamin is the form of vitamin B12 used to treat vitamin B12 defciency due to dietary defciency or malabsorp- ton (see chapter 13. Folic acid should not be used in undiagnosed megaloblastc anaemia unless vitamin B12 is administered concurrently, otherwise neuropathy may be precipitated (see chapter 13. Supplementaton with folic acid 500 µg daily is recommended for women of child-bearing potental in order to reduce the risk of serious neural tube defects in their ofspring. Claims that ascorbic acid is of value in the treatment of common colds are unsubstantated. The term vitamin D covers a range of compounds including ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). These two compounds are equipotent and either can be used to prevent and treat rickets. Minerals: Calcium gluconate: Calcium supplements are usually only required where dietary calcium intake is defcient. This dietary requirement varies with age and is relatvely greater in child- hood, pregnancy and lactaton due to an increased demand, and in old age, due to impaired absorpton. In osteoporosis, a calcium intake which is double the recommended daily amount reduces the rate of bone loss. In hypocalcaemic tetany calcium gluconate must be given parenterally but plasma calcium must be monitored. The recommended intake of iodine is 150 µg daily (200 µg daily in pregnant and lactaton women); in children the recommended intake of iodine is 50 µg daily for infants under 1 year, 90 µg daily for children aged 2-6 years, and 120 µg daily for children aged 7-12 years. Defciency causes endemic goitre and results in endemic cretnism (characterized by deaf-mutsm, intellectual defcit, spastcity and sometmes hypothyroidism), impaired mental functon in children and adults and an increased inci- dence of stll-births and perinatal and infant mortality. Iodine and iodides may suppress neonatal thyroid functon and in general iodine compounds should be avoided in pregnancy.
Paracetamol* Pregnancy Category-B Indicatons Mild to moderate pain including dysmenor- rhoeal pain discount tetracycline 250 mg with amex infection urinaire symptmes, headache; pain relief in osteoar- thrits and sof tssue lesions; pyrexia including post-immunisaton pyrexia; acute migraine atack buy tetracycline 500 mg with amex antibiotics for uti and alcohol. Precautons Hepatc impairment (Appendix 7a); renal impairment; alcohol dependence; lactaton (Appendix 7b); pregnancy (Appendix 7c); overdosage: chapter 7. Adverse Efects Rare but rashes and blood disorders reported; important: liver damage (and less frequently renal damage) following overdosage; dyspepsia. In additon to pain relief it confers a state of euphoria and mental detachment; repeated administraton may cause dependence and tolerance, but this should not be a deterrent in the control of pain in terminal illness. Regular use may also be appropriate for certain cases of non-malignant pain, but specialist supervision is required. In normal doses common adverse efects include nausea, vomitng, constpaton and drowsiness; larger doses produce respiratory depression and hypotension. Codeine is an opioid analgesic much less potent than morphine and much less liable, in normal doses, to produce adverse efects including dependency. Contraindicatons Respiratory depression; obstructve airways disease; acute asthma atack; where risk of paralytc ileus; hypersensitvity; head injury; increased intracranial pressure. Precautons Hepatc impairment (Appendix 7a) and renal impairment; opioids dependence; lactaton; overdosage: chapter 7. Elderly or frail- Acute pain: 5 mg, adjust according to response (not suitable for patents having oedema). Afer 1 to 6 months: initally 100 to 200 µg/ kg every 6 h, 2 to 12 years: initally 200 µg/ kg every 4 h, 12 to 18 years: initally 2. Myocardial infarcton: 10 mg (2 mg/min), followed by another 5 to 10 mg if necessary. Oral or subcutaneous or intramuscular injecton Chronic acute pain: 5 to 20 mg every 4 h or as per recovery (not suitable for patent having oedema). Precautons Renal and hepatc impairment (Appendix 7a); reduce dose or avoid in elderly and debilitated; dependence (severe withdrawal symptoms if withdrawn abruptly); hypothyroidism; convulsive disorders, seizure disorder; decreased respiratory reserve and acute asthma; hypotension; prostatc hypertrophy; pregnancy (Appendix 7c) and lactaton (Appendix 7b); overdosage: chapter 7. Adverse Efects Nausea, vomitng (partcularly in inital stages) constpaton, drowsiness, also dry mouth, anorexia; spasm of urinary and biliary tract; bradycardia/tachycardia; palpitatons; decreased libido; rash, urtcaria, pruritus; sweatng; headache; facial fushing; vertgo; postural hypotension; hypothermia; hallucinatons, euphoria, confusion, dependence; miosis; larger doses produce respiratory depression and hypotension; somnolence; sepsis, peripheral oedema. Pentazocine Pregnancy Category-C Indicatons Moderate to severe pain; pre-anaesthetc medicaton; colic; trauma; surgical procedures; burns. Dose Oral Adult- Pentazocine 50 mg every 3 to 4 h preferably afer food (range 25 to 100 mg, max. Contraindicatons Patents dependent on opioids; arterial or pulmonary hypertension; heart failure; narcotc dependence; hypersensitvity; ischaemia; myocardial infarcton. Precautons Avoid in porphyria; interactons (Appendix 6a); impaired respiratory functon; pregnancy (Appendix 7c); renal or hepatc functon; thyroid dysfuncton; biliary tract impairment. Dose Adult- Moderate to severe pain: 50 to 100 mg, 4 to 6 hourly (max 400 mg/day). Contraindicatons Patents with suicidal tendency; raised intracranial pressure; severe renal impairment; acute alcoholism; lactaton. Precautons Renal or hepatc impairment; history of epilepsy; infammatory or obstructve bowel disease; myasthenia gravis; hypothyroidism; adreno-cortcal insufciency; respiratory depression; prostatc hyperplasia; pregnancy (Appendix 7c). Antacids and Antulcer Drugs Antacids (usually containing aluminium or magnesium compounds) can ofen relieve symptoms in ulcer dyspepsia and in non-erosive gastro-oesophageal refux; they are also some- tmes used in non-ulcer dyspepsia but the evidence of beneft is uncertain. Antacids are best given when symptoms occur or are expected, usually between meals and at bedtme, Liquid preparatons are more efectve than solids. Aluminium-and magnesium-containing antacids (for example aluminium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide), being relatvely insoluble in water, are long-actng if retained in the stomach. Magnesium-containing antacids have a laxatve efect whereas aluminium-containing antacids may be const- patng. H2-receptor antagonists heal gastric and duodenal ulcers by reducing the secreton of gastric acid as a result of histamine H2-receptor blockade; they can also relieve gastro-oesophageal refux disease. High doses of H2-receptor antagonists have been used in the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, but a proton-pump inhibitor is now preferred. Maintenance treatment with low doses has largely been replaced in Helicobacter pylori positve patents by eradicaton regimens. Maintenance treatment may occasionally be used for those with frequent severe recurrences and for the elderly who sufer ulcer complicatons. Treatment of undiagnosed dyspepsia with H2-receptor antago- nists may be acceptable in younger patents but care is required in older patents because their symptoms may be caused by gastric cancer. Treatment also reduces the risk of acid aspiraton in obstetric patents at delivery (Mendelson syndrome).