By T. Leif. Woodbury University.

Lavoisier had provided the arsenic metal and gave the element the name "Arsenicum" order abilify 10mg without prescription anxiety or heart attack. The research question buy 20mg abilify amex depression unmotivated, which we put before us is appropriate to begin with the editions of the alchemists, their works and articles. Our first source for treatment information has been scientifically-popular edition. From this article shows that the author uses the name Arsenic - arsenicum that is, the suffix -іс-. Searching for the right information we have not passed a security source - Materia Medica- scientific literature which takes ambiguous position to use the names of arsenic, indicating that the name is Arsenicum and Arsenum. Also ambiguous approach in the British Pharmacopoeia, where we found the name Anseni Trioxudum, putting the name of a chemical element with the compound in the nominative case, we get - Ansenum. Conclusion: we have been processed 16 educational, scientific publications and sources of Internet resources. After collecting the required amount of material, we noticed that both names are used arsenic - Arsenum, i n and Arsenicum, i n, as two names acids: acidum arsenicicum - acidum arsenicum and acidum arsenicosum - acidum arsenosum. In our opinion, avoiding dualism, is better to use the name element Arsenicum, and n and all derivative form it from its base. The appearance of new words or new meanings of old words means that, the world around us has changed. Either there something new has appeared, or something that has been existing has become so important, that the language, in fact, people who speak this language, create a name for them Aim. Consider and analyze some loan words which have appeared in Russian language in recent years. The research materials are the words of foreign origin, which have been partially or completely mastered by Russian language. It is not only the perception of words from other languages, but their creative development on all levels of language system, formal and semantic transformation according to the original features of Russian language and a high degree of its development. Foreign-language words were subjected to various kinds of changes (phonetic, morphological, semantic), submitting to the laws of development of the Russian language, its functional-stylistic norms. Correspondingly, it is accepted to allocate following stages of adoption of loan words: phonetic, graphical, grammatical and semantic. The process of mastering of words and expressions in Russian language causes us great interest, since at the current stage from long-term it has turned into one, which is happening right in our eyes. There is already a word with the same meaning, for example, a управляющий or colloquial управленец. However, the word менеджер (manager) is absolutely unique, and there is no substitute for it. Thus, contemporary texts, the names of professions, shops, cafes, restaurants, firms and etc. Will all these words included into Russian language or not, time will tell, and at this stage we can make only assumptions. There are many terms in Latin language, which name persons, who are engaged in education and tuition. The initial meanings of this word were the ruler, the boss, the manager and the supervisor. This word is related with the words magnus - large, magis – more, which have root mag. Later it began to used to designate the notion of the teacher, often in combination with the word ludus - school: magister ludi, magister ludi librarii, primus magister. Next term litterator comes from the word littera - the letter, because the main litterator`s task was to teach children the alphabet, to read and to write.. Reading and writing teacher has been called librarius or magister libraries, came from the word liber – a book. Teens from the rich Roman families have been patronized by the cultural Greek slaves, who have been called paedagogus. He followed boy`s education, taught the Greek language and accompanied the boy to school, so he was called pedisequus – somebody, who accompanies or comes, custos – the guardian. Rhetor, orator or eloquence teacher, prepared students for the judicial and political work and directed the third stage of the Roman School.

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The pattern of individual menaquinones in the liver varies considerably between individuals (Shearer et al abilify 15mg low price anxiety natural supplements. This proposal is supported by the finding that two menaquinones purchase 15mg abilify the great depression definition wikipedia, -10 and -11, which are major forms in most liver samples (Uchida & Komeno, 1988; Thijssen & Drittij- Reijnders, 1996), are known to be synthesized by Bacteroides species which are predom- inant members of the human intestinal flora (Conly & Stein, 1992); yet menaquinone- 10 and menaquinone-11 do not make appreciable contributions to normal diets (Shearer et al. The concentration in the heart (~5 ng/g) [~10 pmol/g] is comparable to those in the liver, and even higher concen- trations (~13 ng/g) [~25 pmol/g] are found in the pancreas, but lower concentrations (< 1 ng/g) [< 2 pmol/g] were detected in brain, kidney and lung. These tissues do not appear to contain appreciable concentrations of menaquinones except for the short- chain menaquinone-4. Particularly high concentrations of menaquinone-4 relative to phylloquinone are present in the kidney, brain and pancreas. Although these and other tissues contain the enzymes of the vitamin K epoxide cycle (see Figure 1) and carry out vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of protein precursors, this would not appear to account for the tissue-specific accumulation of menaquinone-4 and may suggest a hitherto unrecognized physiological role for menaquinone-4 in certain tissues (Shearer, 1992; Thijssen & Drittij-Reijnders, 1996). Indeed, menaquinone-4 may arise by tissue synthesis from phylloquinone itself (Davidson et al. Osteocalcin is a major vitamin K-dependent bone protein synthesized by osteo- blasts and therefore requires a source of vitamin K for γ-glutamyl carboxylation. Both trabecular and cortical bone contain ample reserves of vitamin K, with phylloquinone predominating and smaller amounts of shorter-chain menaquinones (Hodges et al. With the absence of the typical hepatic forms menaquinones- 10–13, the vitamin K content of bone resembles that of other extrahepatic tissues. The endogenous stores of vitamin K in the liver of the newborn differ both quantitatively and qualitatively from those of adults because the concentrations and total reserves of phylloquinone are lower than those of adults (Shearer et al. The carboxylation reaction is driven by a vitamin K-dependent carboxylase activity (1) coupled to vitamin K- epoxidase activity (1) which simultaneously converts vitamin K quinol to vitamin K 2,3-epoxide. Vitamin K 2,3-epoxide is reduced back to the quinone by vitamin K epoxide reductase (2A). The cycle is completed by the reduction of recycled vitamin K quinone by vitamin K reductase activity (2B). The activities of both vitamin K epoxide (2A) and vitamin K reductase (2B) are dithiol-dependent (dithiol and disulfide denote reduced and oxidized dithiols) and are inhibited by coumarin anticoagulants such as warfarin. The median hepatic con- centration of 1 ng/g in term infants is equivalent to a total liver pool of about 0. Hepatic phylloquinone concentrations may remain elevated for several weeks after injection: in two infants known to have received 1 mg phylloquinone by the intramuscular route and who survived 13 and 28 days, the total hepatic stores were 24 and 15 μg, respectively (Shearer et al. In three newborns who survived < 24 h, the hepatic concentrations of phylloquinone ranged from 63 to 94 μg/g (total liver stores, 2800–7300 μg), which were four orders of magnitude higher than the endogenous concentrations of 0. Between 24 and 48 h, the hepatic concentrations in 10 infants had fallen to a median of 8. The quite rapid fall in hepatic stores presumably reflects the relatively rapid metabolism and excretion of vitamin K via the urine and bile (Shearer et al. The reduced hepatic reserves of vitamin K in the human neonate are best explained by the existence of a barrier to placental uptake or transfer. This suggestion was origi- nally made on the basis of the large concentration gradient of physiological concen- trations of phylloquinone between maternal and cord blood plasma and the inefficient maternal–fetal transfer of pharmacological doses administered as an intravenous injec- tion to the mother just before delivery (Shearer et al. The poor placental transport of phylloquinone has been confirmed by others (Mandelbrot et al. There is now general agreement that the cord plasma concentration of phyllo- quinone is < 50 pg/mL [110 pmol/L] and that the average maternal–fetal concentration gradient is within the range 20:1 to 40:1 (Shearer, 1992). Few longitudinal studies have been conducted of plasma concentrations in infants who were not given vitamin K prophylaxis. In one such study, cord plasma concen- trations were compared for breast-fed and formula-fed infants and in blood on days 3, 7 and 28 after birth (Pietersma-de Bruyn et al. In entirely breast-fed infants, the blood concentration rose from undetectable (< 20 pg/mL) at birth to mean values of 0. In infants fed a milk formula containing 68 ng/mL phylloquinone, the plasma concentration rose steadily, with mean values of 1. A more detailed longitudinal comparison of plasma concentrations in breast-fed and formula-fed infants at 6, 12 and 26 weeks was made by Greer et al. Such an assessment of the intake of phylloquinone depends on both the analytical accuracy of the measurements in breast milk and validation of the milk collection and sampling technique; both have proved problematical. The results, summarized in Table 8, illustrate the extreme differences in intakes between breast-fed and formula-fed infants, which are also reflected in the plasma concentrations. The plasma concentrations in the formula-fed infants agree with those found by Pietersma- de Bruyn et al.

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P-glycoprotein has a role in the elimi- take from the intestine by biliary excretion order abilify 20mg with mastercard depression symptoms lack of concentration, thus nation of digoxin buy 10 mg abilify fast delivery slender anxiety. Tis causes an increase in intracel- considered due to biotransformation of digoxin. A main excretory route for digoxigenin bis-dig- Digoxin shares some structural homology with itoxoside was shown to be biliary as indicated steroid hormones, suggesting functional similar- by high levels of this metabolite in plasma and ities (Schussheim & Schussheim, 1998; Newman urine of rats with ligated bile ducts (Harrison & et al. It was mechanism of inhibition of these toxins was concluded that increases in digoxin clearance competitive, while the inhibition shown by 10% rates afer weaning may be attributed, at least uraemic serum was non-competitive. However, mechanistic evidence was limited to a demonstration that digitoxin inhib- Studies in humans have assessed the risk of ited the binding of estradiol to specifc, saturable cancer in patients who may have used digoxin, binding sites in the rat uterine cytosol. Te prin- epithelial cells contain several estrogen-binding cipal cancer of interest is cancer of the breast. Summary of Data Reported Nordic countries, France, and Switzerland, and a nationwide cohort study of women in Denmark, 5. Statistically signifcant increases in the occur- Digoxin is a glycoside isolated from Digitalis rence of cancer of the breast in users of digoxin lanata and is used in the treatment of chronic were seen in three case–control studies; in one heart failure and irregular heart rhythm. Other countries with an increased risk for current users (hazard ratio, appreciable use included Japan, Canada, and the 1. In a case–case comparison Statistically signifcant associations of cancer among a subset of the same population, tumours of the breast with use of digoxin were observed occurring in digitalis users were reported to have consistently in women and men, across diferent more favourable prognostic features (estrogen geographical regions, and with diferent study receptor-positive) than in non-users. Cancer of the breast is rare in men and the association of cancer of the breast with use strengthens the validity of association observed of digitoxin were available from one cohort study for cancer of the breast in women. Te record- in women in Denmark, which reported a positive linkage studies that provided key evidence were association (relative risk, 1. Tese studies had not able to adjust for many of the recognized risk limited ability to account for other risk factors factors for cancer of the breast, notably obesity for cancer of the breast, with obesity and alcohol and alcohol drinking, although there was no drinking being of greatest concern. Te same study Denmark, consistent with a possible promoting found no increase in risk of cancers of the cervix efect of digoxin. Te risk of cancer of the prostate, estrogen receptor-positive tumours of the breast another cancer that is infuenced by hormones, in the same study. Te metabolism of digoxin in rats and humans Te cohort study in Norway reported a posi- involves stepwise hydrolytic cleavage of the digi- tive association with leukaemia and lymphoma toxoses to form digoxigenin bis- and mono-dig- combined. Digoxin has structural homology with Digoxin is possibly carcinogenic to humans steroid hormones, suggesting functional simi- (Group 2B). Te structurally related glycoside digi- Te Working Group recognized a possible toxin competes with estrogen for the rat uterine association between digoxin and an increased estrogen cytosolic receptor; however, no evidence incidence of endocrine-related human cancers. Consistent with an endocrine-medi- digoxin and an increased incidence of endo- ated mechanism, the increase in risk was largely crine-related human cancers (primarily breast) for estrogen receptor-positive tumours; further, suggests a mechanism that is estrogen recep- risk of uterus cancer was increased and cancer tor-mediated. Te evidence in and digitoxin act through estrogen-signalling humans favoured a promoter efect that is seen pathways was limited to a demonstration that only in current users. Te molecular targets associated with epidemiological studies, in particular, obesity. Tere is inadequate evidence in experimental Digoxin treatment is associated with an increased inci- animals for the carcinogenicity of digoxin. Aromaa A, Hakama M, Hakulinen T, Saxén E, Teppo Pharmacokinetic considerations for digoxin in L, Idä lan-Heikkilä J (1976). Lack of improvement in for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic outpatient management of congestive heart failure in heart failure 2008: the Task Force for the Diagnosis and the United States. P-glycoprotein-mediated intes- estrogen-sensitive cancers–risks and possible ther- tinal and biliary digoxin transport in humans. Digoxin use and highlights: a review of digoxin and its use in contem- the risk of cancers of the corpus uteri, ovary and cervix. Acta Oncol, Gerlof T, Schaefer M, Johne A, Oselin K, Meisel C, Cascorbi 40(4):467–71. Br J Clin Pharmacol, Guan F, Ishii A, Seno H, Watanabe-Suzuki K, Kumazawa 17(3):353–5. Initial screening for Validation and application of a 96-well format solid- carcinogenicity of commonly used drugs.

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Comparator drugs were Hydrochlorothiazide granules order abilify 15 mg with visa depression la definition, which contain 25 mg of hydrochlorothiazide and Berlipril granules buy 10 mg abilify otc anxiety service dog, which contain 5 mg of enalapril maleate. Hynokarb and hydrochlorothiazide dose of 10 mg/kg (as active substance) is maximally effective diuretic dose, as has been found in earlier experiments. Intragastric administration of hynokarb had no statistically significant effect on creatinine, urea and total protein content. The change direction of total protein and creatinine in blood of experimentally hypertensive rats had positive nature as a result of the tendency to renew these indicators to the level of physiological norm in healthy normotensive rats. As for changes of the level of urea in blood downward, this trend should be considered as positive in terms of activation of nitrogen-releasing renal function. In the same animals, hydrochlorothiazide caused no significant changes in creatinine, urea and total protein content in the blood compared with untreated control. In experimental rats, intragastric administration of enalapril caused a tendency to increase the content of creatinine, urea and a statistically significant increase in total protein content in the blood. Experimentally hypertensive rats developed disorders of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, which was reflected in increasing of serum creatinine and total protein levels. Mechanisms for implementation of antihypertensive response of hynokarb are based on activation of nitrogen-releasing renal function. Parasitic diseases, caused by helminthes, one-celled and arthropods, are a wide group of illnesses, that largely determine the state of health of the population. The share of parasitic diseases account for 14 million deaths per year, representing 25% of the total Earth mortality – every fourth death. The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of the most important parasitic disease of people in Ukraine. A big variety of intestinal forms of the single – celled are the most spread protozoonoses in Ukraine. Giardiasis, Amoebiasis are dominant among them, and cystic protists and Toxoplasma are the most dangerous ones. However, the most topical disease, which is caused by the single-celled, is malaria. From 300 to 500 million of people suffer from malaria every year, at that time from 1. Intestinal helminthoses take the 3d place in the world among all 27 infectious diseases. According to the statistics, every third inhabiotant of Europe is affected by at least one helminth. From 400 to 600 thousands patients with different helminthoses are officially registered every year. Enterobiosis and ascariasis are the most spread representatives of Nematodosis among the inhabitants of Ukraine. Opisthorchiasis is the most spread representative among all trematodosis, which were identified. The second largest focus of opistorchiasis among the countries of the former Soviet Union is situated in Ukraine. It is the basin of the Dniper with its tributaries (Psyol, Sula, Seym, Vorskla etc). The highest level of the infection is observed in Poltava, Chernihiv and Sumy regions where the percent of disease is accordingly 10%, 15% and 70-80% in Sumy region. Human toxocariasis is caused by the migrating larve of the canine nematodes – Toxocara canis, which provoke the disease «syndrome of the migrating larve – syndrome larva migrans». In recent years human toxocariasis has acquired the global dissemination and stay one of the most topical parasitic problems. The number of people, which were infected by toxocariasis, varies widely in the world. According to the Central Sanitary Epidemiological Station of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine the number of toxcariasis cases among people in our country annually increase from 1 in 1998 to 154 in 2007 and more than 2.