By Q. Cole. State University of New York College at Geneseo.
Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry international interim report for 1 January 1989—31 January 2017 buy bactroban 5 gm visa skin care homemade. Animal Studies Carcinogenicity Maraviroc was neither mutagenic nor clastogenic in a series of in vitro and animal in vivo screening tests bactroban 5gm discount skin care mask. Long-term animal carcinogenicity studies of maraviroc in rats showed no drug-related increases in tumor incidence at exposures approximately 11 times those observed in humans at the therapeutic dose. Reproduction/Fertility Reproductive toxicity has been evaluated in rats and rabbits. Teratogenicity/Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes In animal reproduction studies, no evidence of adverse developmental outcomes was observed with maraviroc. Despite the overall 30% decrease in maraviroc exposure during pregnancy and 15% decrease in Ctrough, Ctrough exceeded the minimum target concentration of 50 ng/mL, and only one woman had a Ctrough below that level both during pregnancy and postpartum. Teratogenicity/Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes The 26 cases of frst-trimester exposure that have been monitored to date in the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry and other available frst-trimester exposure data are insuffcient to make a risk determination regarding birth defects. In a model using human placental BeWo cells, maraviroc inhibited transplacental passage of two fuorescent organic cations, suggesting that it might infuence placental drug transfer and cause drug-drug interactions. Maternal-fetal pharmacokinetics and dynamics of a single intrapartum dose of maraviroc in rhesus macaques. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions between antiretrovirals and oral contraceptives. A comparison of the pharmacokinetics of maraviroc during pregnancy and postpartum. Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry international interim report for 1 January 1989–31 January 2017. Effects of antiviral drugs on organic anion transport in human placental BeWo cells. The integrase inhibitor drug class targets this second step in the integration process. Integration is required for the stable maintenance of the viral genome as well as for effcient viral gene expression and replication. Animal Carcinogenicity Studies Dolutegravir was not genotoxic or mutagenic in vitro. No carcinogenicity was detected in 2-year long-term studies in mice at exposures up to 14-fold higher than that achieved with human systemic exposure at the recommended dose, or in rats at exposures up to 10-fold higher in males and 15-fold higher in females than human exposure at the recommended dose. Early experience of dolutegravir pharmacokinetics in pregnancy: high maternal levels and signifcant foetal exposure with twice-daily dosing. A Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir during pregnancy and postpartum. Presented at: 18th International Workshop on Clinical Pharmacology of Antiviral Therapy. Animal studies Carcinogenicity Elvitegravir was not genotoxic or mutagenic in vitro. No carcinogenicity was detected in long-term studies in mice at exposures up to 14-fold and rats at exposures up to 27-fold that achieved with human systemic exposure at the recommended dose. Despite the low elvitegravir exposure in this woman, viral load remained undetectable throughout the pregnancy. Teratogenicity/Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes In the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry, insuffcient numbers of frst-trimester exposures to elvitegravir in humans have been monitored to be able to make a risk determination. Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry International Interim Report for 1 January 1989–31 July 2016. Long-term carcinogenicity studies of raltegravir in mice did not show any carcinogenic potential at systemic exposures 1. Treatment-related squamous cell carcinoma of the nose/nasopharynx was observed in female rats dosed with 600 mg/kg/day raltegravir (exposure 3-fold higher than in humans at the recommended adult dose) for 104 weeks. These tumors were possibly the result of local irritation and infammation due to local deposition and/or aspiration of drug in the mucosa of the nose/nasopharynx during dosing.
Placebo was given with either aspirin or clopidogrel buy bactroban 5gm cheap acne home treatments, so that 2 tables were always given to the patients generic 5 gm bactroban amex skin care yogyakarta. In the phase of combination therapy (aspirin plus clopidogrel) both tablets consisted of active treatment (i. All patients were transported to the Department of Clinical Biochemistry at the Royal Free Hospital and a baseline citrated venous blood sample was collected after resting for 15 min. Group A patients were given clopidogrel (Plavix, Sanofi-Synthelabo, Paris, France) 75 mg/day and placebo for 8 days. On day 8, blood samples were collected in a similar way from all patients, 4 h ± 30 min after the last medication had been taken. After that, all patients in both groups took the combination of the two drugs (aspirin 75 mg/day plus clopidogrel 75 mg/day) for 8 more days. On the last day, 4 h ± 30 min after both medications were taken, a blood-sample was collected. These agonists concentrations and sampling times were determined in previous studies; they generate the most reproducible results. Each Eppendorf tube containing the pellet was resuspended in 1 ml physiological saline (0. In order to ensure full disruption of the platelets, the platelet populations were counted and sized before and after sonication using a Coulter counter coupled to a channelyzer (see Chapter 2, section 2. If the platelet count following this procedure was reduced to <5% of the original, the platelet volume was disregarded since it became unmeasurable. Comparing visit 1 (V1, baseline) with visit 2 (V2, after taking clopidogrel or aspirin for 8 days). Also comparing taking clopidogrel or aspirin after 8 days (V2 on clopidogrel vs V2 on aspirin). In contrast, no significant inhibition of aggregation was observed after taking aspirin for the same time. This effect appeared more obvious when those patients who took aspirin only at visit 2 (after 8 days), were compared with those who took clopidogrel only at the same visit. Comparing visit 1 (V1, baseline) with visit 2 (V2, after taking clopidogrel or aspirin for 8 days). Also comparing taking clopidogrel or aspirin after 8 days (V2 on clopidogrel vs V2 on aspirin). The same comparison was also carried out in those initially assigned aspirin mono-therapy. Comparing visit 1 (V1, baseline) with visit 2 (V2, after taking clopidogrel or aspirin for 8 days). Also comparing taking clopidogrel or aspirin after 8 days (V2 on clopidogrel vs V2 on aspirin). Comparing visit 1 (V1, baseline) with visit 2 (V2, after taking clopidogrel or aspirin for 8 days). Also comparing taking clopidogrel or aspirin after 8 days (V2 on clopidogrel vs V2 on aspirin). Results expressed as median using non-parametric Wilcoxon matched pairs (n= 10 for each drug). The comparison of baseline (V1) values with either drug alone (V2), was not considered as the numbers would have been too small (n=10), and therefore, weakening the strength of the stastical test. Baseline values (V1) were again not compared with V2 for the reasons outlined (in 3. All the patients were followed up for an additional 2 weeks, but no side effects were reported. Of the 20 patients, 13 went back to their original medication, while the 7 who were previously not on anti-platelet therapy started taking aspirin (75 mg/day). The fact that in this study, a dose of 75 mg/day of oral clopidogrel was used, as compared to 10 mg/kg i. Several trials evaluated the benefit and safety of clopidogrel alone or with aspirin for the prevention of cardiovascular events (Bakhru et al. The efficacy of aspirin mono-therapy is well documented by a multitude of trials (2002, no authors listed). Furthermore, when patients were put on aspirin the platelet half- life was prolonged.
Fungi: recyclers safe bactroban 5 gm acne 39 weeks pregnant, pathogens buy discount bactroban 5gm line skin care untuk kulit berjerawat, parasites 2 Differential gene expression in development th 12 week: 1. Lecture: Gene mutation and molecular Differential gene expression in development medicine2. Motion in one dimension, 4 week: displacement, velocity, acceleration, motion Lecture: 7. Discussion of inorganic chemistry Lecture: Nitrogen containing organic com- pounds: the structure and properties of th 4 week: amines. The requirements of these condensed premedical science subjects are very rigorous, thus preparation prior to the beginning the General Medicine, Dentistry or Pharmacy Program is recommended. Students successfully completing the course are directly admitted to their chosen program. Students are encouraged to ask questions related to the topic of the lectures discussed, and participate in solving problems related to the topic of the seminar. Some professors will ask for students to volunteer information, but some professors call on students randomly. It is, thus, a good idea to come to class prepared so as not to be embarrassed in front of the class. The usage of electronic devices, textbooks and any form of interaction between students during the tests is strictly forbidden. Violation of these above mentioned regulations results in an immediate and unconditional dismissal from the program. Attending lectures is strongly recommended, attendance of seminars is compulsory and recorded. Everyone must attend the seminars with the group designated by the Registrar’s Office. Absence can significantly affect your understanding and can have serious implications for progression in your studies. One might have a maximum of six seminar absences to have the opportunity to get exemption. Missed seminars cannot be made up unless one obtains prior permission to be absent. Self Control Tests, End of Semester Exams, and Final Exams will be assessed as follows. Lecture: Nucleic acids and the origin of life Proteins, carbohydrates and lipids 2. Self Control Test th 13 week: th 6 week: Lecture: Fungi: recyclers, pathogens, Lecture: Pathways that harvest chemical parasites 1. Differential gene expression in development Pathways that harvest chemical energy 3. Sensory systems th 20 week: rd Lecture: Salt and Water Balance Nitrogen 23 week: Excretion. Lecture: Animal reproduction and Animal Self Control Test Development The human reproduction system. Rotational motion under Displacement, velocity and acceleration in constant angular acceleration. The camera, the simple magnifier, the Total internal reflection and its medical compound microscope, the telescope and the applications. Atomic, structures for molecular compounds and molecular and molar mass relationships. Substituted carboxylic acids: halo acids, th 13 week: hydroxy acids, keto acids, amino acids. A credit is a relative index of cumulative work invested in a compulsory, a required elective or a freely chosen subject listed in the curriculum. The credit value of a course is based upon the number of lectures, seminars and practical classes of the given subject that should be attended or participated in (so called "contact hours"), and upon the amount of work required for studying and preparing for the examination(s).
Analytically observed elevation of parathyroid hor- logical health should be given more attention during rehabilitation mone 5 gm bactroban otc acne vacuum, vitamin D defciency discount bactroban 5gm mastercard acne home remedies, and hypocalciuria hipofosfatúria. However, it still a very underdiagnosed pathologies, sometimes only taken in the presence of signs of unu- A. The frst occurs only during growth and is a defect in mineralization of the epiphyseal plate. In this case, the epidemiologi- Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in Patients cal, clinical, analytical and imaging features are many suggestive of the diagnosis. Letizia Mauro6 with gains balance and proprioception to prevent falls and serious 1Second University of Naples, Naples, 2Piemonte Orientale Uni- fractures. The muscle strength and muscle teoclast activity and widely used clinically for postmenopausal osteo- performance were, respectively, assessed with the Jamar handheld porosis. Histological analysis showed increased ossifcation, joints, presenting around 20 to 30 years of age. Conclusion: This study shows that symptoms are pain, stiffness and fatigue, which may cause activity pamidronate, calcium and vitamin D have antiresorptive effect in the limitation and reduced physical, social and psychosocial well-being. Bone markers were useful in Massage is defned as “a mechanical manipulation of body tissues monitoring the biochemical effect of bisphosphonates, but could not with rhythmical pressure and stroking for the purpose of promot- predict the bone quality. The aims of massage therapy include: role in analyzing effects of medication and strongly correlated with to identify and eliminate hyperirritability in muscle and fascia, to bone quality. Keywords: experimental osteoporosis, pamidronate, reduce soft tissue pain and spasm, to restore lymph and blood cir- calcium, vitamin D. They were seperated into group 1 [deep tissue massage, n = 14 men] and group 2 [therapeutic massage, n=13 men]. Results: There was Introduction: Bisphosphonates are usually applied via oral route not statistically signifcant differences between groups according to during clinical practice with good effcacy in reducing fracture risk. Conclusion: The study containing bisphosphonate which is approved for treatment of post- showed positive, statistically signifcant effects of massages on the menopausal osteoporosis. Branco cords of 50 zoledronic acid infusions of osteoporotic women were 1 2 investigated retrospectively. Factors such as race, gender, physical constitution, lifestyle, The mean age of the study population was 74 ± 7. Zoledronic acid was applied for the frst time in 37 pa- tion or re-absorption and lead to changes in bone mineral density. The mean time a low/absent animal protein diet, does it have a risk to de develop- interval for the post-treatment control was 19. The decrease in serum Ca levels were statistically signif- etarians compared with non-vegetarians. Of the investigated parameters only serum calcium view of literature was made using the research motor PubMed using level changed signifcantly after zoledronic acid infusion. Results: A prospec- ed side effects were infuenza like symptoms, myalgia, arthralgia, tive study showed that there was not a signifcant impact of the veg- headache and pyrexia. Conclusion: Intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid is Other meta analysis not evidenced a negative impact of a vegetar- safe in terms of renal and hepatic side effects. Conclusion: As several studies evidence, cium level may decrease despite precautions against hypocalcemia. Aromatherapy massage was applied to knee area along with 6 weeks/three times in a week, for 30 min- *A. The patients continued to get their rheumatoid arthritis medication dur- aims of this study were to review the current evidence and evaluate ing the research. Pain and fatigue scores of experimental group the role of exercise for the management of patients with ankylos- were measured in the frst hour after each aromatherapy massage. Material and Methods: Sys- To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, independent samples t- tematic review of the literature published until September 2014 in test, Mann-Whitney U test were used. Results: Of the 24 patients Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Scopus admitted, 8.
As long as there are no signs of rupture such as hypotension cheap bactroban 5gm amex skin care x, severe pain bactroban 5 gm free shipping skin care for acne, or free fluid on ultrasound, expect- ant management may be practiced. In vitro fertilization with embryo transfer produces a rate of coexisting intrauterine pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy of up to 3% (markedly higher than the spontaneous rate of 1:10,000). Thus, a woman who has undergone in vitro fertilization who presents with abdominal fluid and hypotension must be suspected as having an ectopic pregnancy, even when an intrauterine preg- nancy has been visualized on sonography. The presence of uterine cramping, vaginal bleeding, passage of tissue, and an open cervical os in a pregnant woman is consistent with an incomplete abortion. This patient likely has a completed abortion with the resolution of symp- toms following passage of tissue and now with a small uterus and closed cervi- cal os. Nevertheless, there is still a possibility of ectopic pregnancy and perhaps the “tissue” passed was only blood clot. Dilation and curettage would generally be performed, and if chorionic villi found the diagnosis is miscarriage; absence of chorionic villi establishes the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy which may be treated by surgery or methotrexate. Consider pregnancy even when a woman has had a tubal ligation or is using contraception. Surgery, not methotrexate, is the best treatment for the patient who is hemodynamically unstable or with significant abdominal pain. The patient was noted to have numerous episodes of nausea and vomit- ing over the past 1 1/2 months, which has persisted despite antiemetic therapy and adjustments in her diet. On examination, the patient is lethargic but will respond to painful stimuli and open her eyes. She is found to be lethargic and noted to be hypovolemic with blood pressure of 92/44 mm Hg and heart rate of 130 beats per minute. Know the physiologic changes in pregnancy and their impact on common dis- eases in pregnancy. Considerations This patient described in the scenario above is significantly ill and needs aggres- sive fluid replacement, electrolyte replacement, and correction of metabolic abnor- malities. She has complicated hyperemesis gravidarum, and needs a diagnostic workup such as pelvic ultrasound if not previously performed, right upper quadrant ultrasound, and thyroid function tests. Antiemetic therapy, and fluid replacement and nothing by mouth should be initiated. The patient should be followed carefully once discharged to ensure that she doesn’t become so volume depleted. For this chapter, the discussion will be focused on: hyper- emesis gravidarum, spontaneous abortion, asthma exacerbation, hyperthyroidism/ thyroid storm, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and pyelonephritis. Hyperemesis Gravidarum Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy is very common, affecting up to 75% of pregnant women. However, hyperemesis gravidarum, which is defined as intractable emesis with volume depletion and metabolic/electrolyte alterations is less common, with prevalence of about 2% of pregnancies. Typically it occurs in women in the first tri- mester, and is diagnosis of exclusion. The emergency physician should not be lulled into complacency because nausea and vomiting is so common in pregnant women. The evaluation should include addressing the degree of volume depletion and exploring the possibility of metabolic issues such as electrolyte abnormalities, renal or liver function abnormalities, and the possibility of other etiologies. Pregnant women are typically young and healthy, and significant hypovolemia with compensation without appearing ill. A careful history should be taken regard- ing the amount of oral intake, medications taken if any, and the presence of other possible causes of emesis. The differential diagnosis includes pancreatitis, gall stones, peptic ulcer disease, appendicitis, ovarian torsion, pyelonephritis, and gastroenteritis. Thus an ultrasound should be performed to assess for adnexal masses and to define the type of pregnancy. For patients who have failed outpatient therapy, or who have moderate to severe volume depletion should be hospitalized for more intensive therapy and monitoring. Rarely, patients will be so severely affected that total parenteral nutrition is required. Spontaneous Abortion Patients who present with vaginal bleeding during pregnancy are said to have a threatened abortion.
Instead generic bactroban 5 gm online acne jeans review, they are at risk for exert antiviral effect but may be an immune modulator venous and arterial thromboembolisms generic 5 gm bactroban mastercard acne face mask. Hemolytic anemia history of recurrent unplanned abortions or thrombosis occurs in nearly 25% of patients receiving this therapy. Interferon has common side effects as well, including ﬂulike symptoms, depression, sleep disturbances, person- 105. This disorder alone may account for broader spectrum of activity than ﬂuconazole against ≤25% of inherited prothrombotic states, making it the Candida spp. It is avail- mutation increases an individual’s lifetime risk of venous able in oral and parenteral forms. Chemotherapy is most effec- interacts signiﬁcantly with many other medications, tive for small cell lung cancer, lymphoma, or germ cell including immunosuppressive agents, such as tacrolimus, tumors. Some non–small cell lung tumors are responsive that are often used in patients at risk for systemic fungal to novel chemotherapy agents. Voriconazole may also cause liver toxicity and effective for palliation and may be considered to prevent photosensitivity. The minimum radiologic evidence for cord B-1,3-glucan synthase, a necessary enzyme for fungal compression is compression of the theca at the level of cell wall synthesis that does not have a human correlate. However, radiologic conﬁrmation is not These agents are available only parentally, not orally. It is not a ﬁrst-line therapy for Aspergillus noma, lymphomas, and melanomas may also cause spinal infection but may be used as salvage therapy. The most commonly affected site is the echinocandins, including caspofungin, have an extremely thoracic spine (70% of cases) followed by the sacral spine high safety proﬁle. Pain is usually present for days or months before mucormycosis, paracoccidiomycosis, or histoplasmosis. About 75% percent of patients who are ambulatory at the time of diagnosis will 110. The pathophysiology is attributable to coronary for presumptive diagnoses before pathologic tissue sec- artery vasospasm. Proximal nonobstructive coronary tions can be examined or cultures of blood or tissue plaques are usually present. There is no such widely used serologic test occurs within 1 cm of a coronary plaque and is associ- for blastomycosis. Because of further vasospasm, cold ever, false-negative test results may occur, and further water ingestion may exacerbate the patient’s symptoms. Common complaints include with similar laboratory ﬁndings: elevated ﬁbrinogen neck and facial swelling with dyspnea. Glucocorticoids may be effective at shrinking the ﬂuctuate as much in patients with severe liver disease. See Acute myeloid leukemia A/H1N1 viral strains, 141–142 administration, 419 Ammoniagenesis, 418 A/H5N1. See Aminotransferases levels, tuberculosis treatment Antibacterial chemotherapy Transtubular K concentration gradient and, 132 acquired resistance and, 440–442 Alemtuzumab, 489 Amiodarone, 313, 314, 513, 533 principles of, 443–448 Index 557 Antibacterial drugs. See also Bacterial pathogens;speciﬁc bacteria Bladder neck obstruction, 375, 382 airway disorder and, 9 and bacterial diseases Blastomycosis, 531 discomfort, 8 donor kidneys and, 239 Bleeding, 426–427. See also Hemophilia disorders of ventilatory pump and, 7 mechanisms of resistance, 440–442 from warfarin, cryoprecipitate and, 211 inspection, 4 severe sepsis and, 278, 280 Bleeding disorders,428 mineral dusts and, 87 thermophilic, 85 Bleeding time, 380 Brittle asthma,76 Bacterial bronchitis, lung transplantation and, 237 Bleomycin, 487 Bronchial asthma, eosinophilic pneumonia Bacterial cell death, 439 β blockade, 319, 321 and, 84 Bacterial cell wall synthesis, inhibition of, 437 β blockers, 323, 340, 363 Bronchial breath sounds, 4 Bacterial cell-wall glycolipid lipoarabinomannan, ventricular rate and, 339 Bronchial circulation, asthma and, 67 tuberculosis and, 119 β-blockers, pain relief and, 330 Bronchial wall, 166–167 Bacterial endocarditis, 446 Blood, from tracheobronchial tree, 17 Bronchiectasis, 14, 17, 52f, 78,166, 169, 534 Bacterial infections,434 Blood cell transfusions, immunosuppression deﬁnition and pathology of, 166 prophylaxis of, 453–454, 453t and, 109 infectious v. See Bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing respiratory tract infections and, 16 endotracheal intubation and, 250 pneumonia Bronchogenic carcinoma, 15 mechanical ventilation and, 252, 263 Borg scale, dyspnea and. See Connective tissue diseases Compressive cardiogenic shock,274 Coronary revascularization, 323 cTnI. See Disseminated intravascular coagulation resistance, tuberculosis treatment and, 132 D-dimer test, 431 Diesel particulates, asthma and, 62 safety Death, 307t. See Delayed-type hypersensitivity Electrophrenic stimulation, 224 Environmental toxins, global considerations, 97, 97f reaction Electrophysiologic study, 338, 341 Environment-induced lung disease.
Triterpene saponins: aglycone hederagenin discount 5 gm bactroban otc acne 415 blue light therapy 38 led bulb, oleanolic acid proven bactroban 5gm acne jaw line, bayogenin, chief components hederosaponin C (hederacoside Daily Dosage: Tea and other infusions can be taken C, slightly transforming into alpha-hederin, aglycone heder- internally 3 times daily. Fresh leaves may be laid upon festering wounds and burns; a decoction of fresh leaves (200 gm/liter water) Volatile oils: including some with methylethylketone, may be used externally for rheumatism. The daily dose of a methylisobutylketone tincture is 40 to 50 drops; single dose: 5 to 10 drops. The fresh leaves are an irritant to the skin and mucosa and can have an allergenic effect. Heidelberg, New York, 1992- Characteristics: The flowers have a fresh aromatic 1994. Habitat: The plant is indigenous to the Mediterranean region Lewin L, Gifte und Vergiftungen, 6. Nachdruck, Haug but is common in most of southern Europe and is cultivated Verlag, Heidelberg 1992. Production: English Lavender flower consists of the dried Nachdruck, Georg Olms Verlag Hildesheim 1979. Other Names: French Lavender, Garden Lavender, Lavender Wagner H, Wiesenauer M, Phytotherapie. Flower and Fruit: The flowers are in false whorls of 6 to 10 blossoms forming interrupted terminal spikes. The pedicles In a 1936 study, a choleretic and cholagogic effect was are 10 to 15 cm long downy stems. In addition, an antimicrobial effect has been long, ovate to broadly triangular, often brown and brown- demonstrated in vitro. Further information in: Unproven Uses: In folk medicine, English Lavender is used Hansel R, Keller K, Rimpler H, Schneider G (Hrsg. Phytopharmaka und Preparation: An infusion is prepared by adding 5 to 10 ml of pflanzliche Homoopathika, Fischer-Verlag, Stuttgart, Jena, New drug per cup of hot water (150 ml), draw for 10 minutes, and York 1995. Daily Dosage: A tea prepared as indicated above can be administered 1 cup three times daily. Medicinal Parts: The medicinal parts are the dried leaves, Buchbauer G, Jirovet L, Jager W, Dietrich H, Plank C, the dried herb and the fresh plant. Karamat E, (1991) Aromatherapy: Evidence for Sedative Effects of the Essential Oil of Lavender after Inhalation. Z Naturforsch Flower and Fruit: The globular or shortly cylindrical spikes 46c: 1067-1072. The scarious calyx is Approved by Commission E: deeply divided into 4 parts and has a cylindrical tube and a • Common cold margin with 4 ovate tips. There are 4 long stamens with • Cough/bronchitis yellowish-white filaments and anthers and 1 superior ovary. The seeds • Inflammation of the mouth and pharynx are oblong, 2 mm long and blackish. All the Unproven Uses: In folk medicine, the pressed juice of leaves are in basal rosettes and are lanceolate or linear- English Plantain is used internally for conditions of the lanceolate, deeply 3 to 5 ribbed, entire-margined or short- respiratory tract, cystitis, enuresis, liver disease, stomach dentate. Habitat: The plant is widespread in the cool temperate Externally the plant is used for wounds, furuncles, conjuncti- regions of the world. Flavonoids: including among other chief components apige- nine-6,8-diglucoside, luteolin-7-glucuronide Tea—1 cup of freshly made tea to be drunk several times a day. Hydroxycoumarins: aesculetin Davini E, The quantitative isolation and antimicrobial activity of aglycone of aucubin. Saponins (traces) Elich J, Die antibakterielle Aktivitat einiger einheimischer Silicic acid Plantago-Arten. The aucubigenin (hydrol- lanceolata and inhibitory effects on arachidonic acid-induced ised acubin) and an antimicrobial saponin are believed to be mouse ear edema. In addition, accelera- tion of blood clotting has been demonstrated and a possible Wunderer H, Zentral und peripher wirksame Antitussiva: eine epithelization effect has been mentioned. The spore, usually deposited by a visiting insect, Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, 5. When the ovary has been completely destroyed, the myceli- Madaus G, Lehrbuch der Biologischen Arzneimittel, Bde.