By P. Julio. Grinnell College.

Individual deaths can trigger drug quality investigations; mass causali- ties are clearly more likely to rouse suspicion generic zantac 300 mg line symptoms of gastritis in babies. Chapter 2 describes one such incident discount 300 mg zantac with mastercard gastritis diet , when a Panamanian physician reported on a spike in cases of acute renal failure, accompanied by neurological dysfunction, abdominal symptoms, urinary irregularities, anorexia, and fatigue (Rentz et al. A case-control investigation found diethyelene glycol poisoning to be the cause of the outbreak (Rentz et al. Later investigations, including a Pulitzer Prize–winning New York Times series, implicated falsifed ingre- dients from China in an international poisoning crisis (Bogdanich, 2007; Rentz et al. Newspaper reports and other gray literature sources also contain a wealth of information about drug quality problems. Monitoring this litera- ture is a valuable way to follow what drugs are compromised and where. Pharmacopeia’s Media Reports on Medicine Quality Focusing on Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. The reports presented in the compendium suggest that a range of drugs are com- promised in low- and middle-income countries. An overview of case studies and gray literature is helpful to understand- ing falsifed and substandard drugs. Gray literature compendiums and peer- reviewed case studies indicate where and in what product lines drug quality problems occur. Such reports raise awareness of the problem and can trigger scientifc investigation and convenience sampling. Gray literature reports do not often give details of quality testing of compromised samples, but they generally describe products so grossly and obviously compromised that confrmatory lab testing would be unnecessary. Convenience Samples A convenience sample is a no-probability sample chosen for its acces- sibility to researchers, not from an a priori sampling frame. Research on drug quality often uses convenience samples of pharmacies or dispensaries. Convenience studies are logistically simpler than probability-based stud- ies and can be less expensive (Newton et al. Although useful for identifying problems, results of these studies cannot accurately estimate the population prevalence of poor-quality drugs. This section presents the results of some key convenience studies and review papers. Antimicrobial Drugs Antimicrobial drugs treat bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic diseases. There are considerable data to suggest that antimicrobial drug quality, par- ticularly the quality of antibiotics and antimalarials, is a problem in low- and middle-income countries. In 2007 Kelesidis and colleagues conducted a comprehensive literature review on antimicrobial drug quality, reviewing Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. They found that a lack of methodological detail prevented pooling or interpreting aggregate results (Kelesidis et al. As Table 3-6 indicates, they found reason for con- cern with antibiotic quality in low- and middle-income countries, though reports of poor-quality antibiotics surface all over the world, including the United States and Europe (Kelesidis et al. A year later, a study of 111 amoxicillin samples collected in four Arab countries found that 56 percent failed U. It is diff- cult, however, to draw frm conclusions about substandard drug production from these studies. Antibiotics degrade quickly in warm climates; it is hard to distinguish substandard manufacture from poor storage and handling. When researchers test only authorized products, they bias their sample against the unregistered products used by the poorest (Seear et al. Some convenience samples have compared the quality of approved and un- approved products. Between 2008 and 2012, Bate and colleagues collected samples of 2,652 anti-infective drugs from around the world: 11 African cities, 3 Indian cities, Bangkok, Beijing, Istanbul, Moscow, and São Paulo.

Hence buy 150 mg zantac amex gastritis diet 1000, the source of gelatin can influence the size buy 300mg zantac free shipping gastritis symptoms back, zeta-potential, and drug loading in gelatin nanoparticles (46, 47). For type A gelatin and type B gelatin, pH 7 and pH 3, respectively, were found to be critical for the preparation of nanoparticles (48). At these pH values, the strengths of electrostatic interactions are maximized for obtaining stable particles with optimal drug loading. Furthermore, in the case of gelatin, due to its high viscosity, a preheating (40◦C) step was used to prepare smaller size nanoparticles (48). However, a higher temperature (50◦C) was found to increase the particle size, due to the excessive unfolding of the protein (48). In a comparative study between different strengths of gelatin (75, 175, and 300 bloom strength), it was found that 300 bloom strength was optimal in terms of particle size, polydispersity index, and drug encapsulation (48). Surface Properties One of the significant advantages of protein polymers is the presence of numerous surface functional groups that can be used for modifying the surface of the pro- tein nanoparticles to alter their biodistribution or biocompatibility or drug loading and/or improve their enzymatic stability (Fig. Particle size and surface proper- ties of protein nanoparticles depend on the number of disulfide bonds, number of thiol groups, degree of unfolding, electrostatic repulsion among protein molecules, pH, and ionic strength. The surface amine groups can be cross-linked using cross-linkers such as glutaraldehyde (Fig. The protonation or deprotonation of the surface amine groups can influence the degree of cross-linking (46). An increase in cross-linker concentration generally decreases the particle size of protein nanoparticles due to the formation of denser particles (48). Cross-linking helps in controlling the drug release from protein nanoparticles, as well as stabilizing the particles against prote- olytic breakdown. The surface functional groups can also be used to load drugs by electrostatic interactions (47). Kommareddy and Amiji (50) thiolated the surface amine groups to form disulfide bonds in gelatin nanoparticles. These nanoparticles can release their cargo under the highly reduc- ing environment in the tumor cells (50). Similarly, ligands have been attached to the surface of protein nanoparticles for drug targeting to specific tissues in the body (51,52). The surface functional groups in the protein can also directly interact with the biological membrane. Gliadin nanoparticles have been reported to show bioad- hesive property in the intestinal membrane, where the surface amino acids adhered to the intestinal membrane through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interac- tions (39). Drug Properties The physicochemical properties of the drug, such as solubility, log P, and molec- ular weight, influence the drug loading in protein nanoparticles. The drugs can be loaded through encapsulation in the nanoparticle or by the interaction of drug with the protein through covalent or noncovalent interactions. Highly hydrophobic drugs have been found to interact with cysteine residues in the albumin through hydrophobic interactions (19). For example, paclitaxel a highly hydrophobic drug is loaded in albumin nanoparticles by mixing albumin and paclitaxel in a high pressure homogenizer (53). A large number of drugs are known to bind to serum albumin, and hence albumin appears to be a promising carrier (19). In the case of gelatin nanoparticles, higher encapsulation efficiency was reported for hydrophilic drugs than for hydrophobic drugs (46). Doxorubicin was adsorbed onto gelatin- coated iron oxide nanoparticles for targeting using magnetic field (47). It was found that the adsorption of cationic doxorubicin onto gelatin nanoparticles increased with increasing pH due to the negative charge of gelatin at higher pH. On the other hand, the encapsulation of doxorubicin in gelatin-coated iron oxide nanopar- ticles showed a slower drug release than surface-adsorbed nanoparticles (47). The release of hydrophilic drugs from gelatin nanoparticles was found to occur by zero- order kinetics, whereas hydrophobic drugs were released by pseudo zero-order kinetics (46).

Where in the applicable provision (including available 150mg zantac with mastercard chronic gastritis bile reflux, the application should also include any implementing regulation) of sec- copies of any legislative history or back- tion 401 or 403 of the act; or ground materials used in issuing the require- (ii) Differ from those specifically im- ment discount zantac 300 mg otc gastritis aguda, including hearing reports or studies posed by or contained in the applicable concerning the development or consideration of the requirement. An explanation of the State requirement meet the general requirements of and its rationale, and a comparison of State §10. An explanation of why compliance with the State requirement would not cause a tioner may submit an original and a food to be in violation of any applicable re- computer readable disk containing the quirement under Federal law. The petition should contain in- mitting a disk should contact the Cen- formation on economic feasibility, i. To the extent possible, the petition Department of Health and Human Services, should include information showing that it 5630 Fishers Lane, rm. Identification of a particular need for in- under section 403A(b)of the Federal Food, formation that the State requirement is de- signed to meet, which need is not met by Drug, and Cosmetic Act to request that the Federal law. The petition should describe the Food and Drug Administration exempt a conditions that require the State to petition State requirement from preemption. Environmental Impact writing of the filing and docket number The petition shall contain a claim for cat- of a petition. Provide name and address of person, (5) Within 90 days of the date of filing branch, department, or other instrumen- tality of the State government that should the agency will furnish a response to be notified of the Commissioner’s action con- the petitioner. The availability for (g) If a State submitted a petition for public disclosure of a petition for ex- exemption of a State requirement from emption will be governed by the rules preemption under section 403A(a)(3) specified in §10. Name of firm against which action is menced an informal or formal enforce- anticipated (if applicable). Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Ad- (d) The notification that a State sub- ministration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy. Name of product(s) covered by the notifica- This date will be the date of notifica- tion llllll tion for the purposes of paragraph (b) Reporting official, title, and telephone no. Copy of the label and labeling of the actions include warning letters, recalls, product. Reason for the anticipated State en- dicial enforcement actions that pertain forcement action (list specific violations, in- to the food in question. In accordance with section 403(d) of (a) For the purposes of this section, the act, a food shall be deemed to be the term iodized salt or iodized table salt misbranded if its container is so made, is designated as the name of salt for formed, or filled as to be misleading. Slack-fill is the difference words in the name shall be equal in between the actual capacity of a con- prominence and type size. The state- tainer and the volume of product con- ment "This salt supplies iodide, a nec- tained therein. Nonfunctional slack-fill essary nutrient" shall appear on the is the empty space in a package that is label immediately following the name filled to less than its capacity for rea- and shall be in letters which are not sons other than: less in height than those required for (1) Protection of the contents of the the declaration of the net quantity of package; contents as specified in §101. I (4–1–10 Edition) of a food described in this section shall Subpart C—Specific Nutrition Labeling be exempt from declaration of the Requirements and Guidelines statements which paragraphs (a) and 101. For the purpose of obtaining Subpart F—Specific Requirements for De- uniform type size in declaring the scriptive Claims That Are Neither Nutri- quantity of contents for all packages of ent Content Claims nor Health Claims substantially the same size, the term 101. The term principal display panel as it (a) The term information panel as it applies to food in package form and as applies to packaged food means that used in this part, means the part of a part of the label immediately contig- label that is most likely to be dis- uous and to the right of the principal played, presented, shown, or examined display panel as observed by an indi- under customary conditions of display vidual facing the principal display for retail sale. I (4–1–10 Edition) to accommodate the necessary infor- requirement of this section other than mation or is otherwise unusable label the exemptions created by §1. The require- inch in height, except that if the infor- ments for conspicuousness and leg- mation required by §101. Information appear- shall be exempt from the size and ing on the closure shall appear in the placement requirements prescribed by following priority: this section if all of the following con- (i) The statement of ingredients. Further, the state- (ii) There is insufficient area on the ment of ingredients is not required on package available to print all required the container body if this information information in a type size of 1⁄16 inch in appears on the lid in accordance with height; this section. A petition re- tory label information shall not be con- questing such a regulation, as an sidered. If there is insufficient space amendment to this paragraph, shall be for all of this information to appear on submitted under part 10 of this chap- a single panel, it may be divided be- ter. I (4–1–10 Edition) be considered to be a necessary part of or usual name regulation pursuant to the statement of identity and shall be part 102 of this chapter, or in a regula- declared in letters of a type size bear- tion establishing a nutritional quality ing a reasonable relation to the size of guideline pursuant to part 104 of this the letters forming the other compo- chapter), and which complies with all nents of the statement of identity; ex- of the applicable requirements of such cept that if the optional form is visible regulation(s), shall not be deemed to be through the container or is depicted by an imitation. This specification does not affect essential nutrient that is present in a the required declarations of identity measurable amount, but does not in- under definitions and standards for clude a reduction in the caloric or fat foods promulgated pursuant to section content provided the food is labeled 401 of the act.